離體肺灌流系統（Radnoti Isolated Lung System #190101）
Radnoti 改良的在體心/肺灌流（in Vivo）
肺不僅是對呼吸重要，同時它也是藥物的靶點，包括揮發性的麻醉氣體，生化或生物試劑，涉及藥物代謝與分布等。同時還涉及許多病理情況，包括缺血，水腫，和損傷疾病。離體肺系統與離體心灌流系統有相似也有區別。兩個系統都需要保持動物的生理溫度，同時也都需要通過 Kreb’s 或 Tyrode’s 液進行灌注。與離體心臟灌流一樣，肺的脈管也是可以按照恒壓或者恒流的模式進行灌流。同時通過一個人造氣管插入肺。肺的呼吸性能，可以通過在特定呼吸頻率下的呼出容量測定。不像心臟可以自發的搏動，肺的活動必須通過呼吸機輔助進行。促使肺活動有兩種方法。正壓法和負壓法。
? 測量 PH,氧，二氧化碳的內嵌式離子選擇電極
The Radnoti Isolated Lung System permits a wide variety of experimental formats to be explored.
Constant pressure and constant flow perfusion can occur in both re-circulating and
Components Included With the System:
? High-tech lung chamber
? Sturdy, adjustable four bar stand.
? Membrane oxygenator for solutions containing proteins or blood
? Two water-jacketed reservoirs
? Bubble traps to reduce endothelial damage caused by large gas bubbles
? Manifolds for water, gas and perfusate control.
? Inline pressure transducers to measure perfusion pressure
? Pressure sensors are used to determine inspiration and expiration pressures and the gasses passed into the lung are humidified using a gas chamber.
? A variable speed and volume respirator delivers humidified air or other gasses to the lungs
(positive pressure) or creates a cycling negative/positive pressure change in the lung chamber
? Re-circulating, constant temperature bath for temperature control.
? Peristaltic pump for recirculating of solutions and to maintain a constant pressure head or
? The lung cannula is attached to a force transducer with a +/- 5 volt readout for experimenters
interested in measuring lung edema.
? Inline flow meters measure perfusion flow
? Inline ion selective electrodes to measure perfusate pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
? By changing artificial tracheas and the lung chamber in concert with respirator settings and control valves, lungs from subjects from mice to rabbits or larger can be used.
? Expired air or perfusate can also be collected for metabolic studies. that can be linked to a data acquisition system.
Radnoti Modification for Heart/Lung Perfusion (HLP) in Vivo
The advantage of the Heart Lung preparation is that the left and right heart regions of the heart can be investigated independently in a single system configuration. The heart-lung preparation does not consist of an isolated organ removed from the body, since heart and lung remain in the open thorax of the donor animal. The lung is ventilated using a small animal respirator that maintains oxygenation of the blood or perfusion buffer. Heart and lung are supplied with heperinised whole blood or a buffer solution from a Water-Jacketed temperature controlled reservoir. The reservoir is adjustable in height in order to vary the pressure in the right atrium (preload). After load resistance can be adjusted by variation in the elevation of the outflow compliance chamber. The Radnoti system is easily instrumented for a wide range of experimental parameters. The Heart Lung preparation is adapted from the Radnoti 190101 Isolated lung system by removal of the membrane oxygenator and the Isolated lung chamber. In place of the isolated lung chamber, a rodent surgical table is used (sold separately).
Overview of Isolated Lung Perfusion.
The lungs are important not only for respiration, but also as a target organ for drugs that include volatile anesthetics,biochemical and biological agents, are involved in drug metabolism and
distribution and are involved in a number of pathological scenarios, including ischemia, edema,various diseases and trauma. The isolated lung system has both similarities and differences to the isolated heart system. Both systems require maintenance of the organ at physiological temperatures and perfusion with crystalloid solutions, such as Kreb’s or Tyrode’s solutions, or
admixtures containing blood. Like the isolated heart system, the vasculature of the lung can be perfused in a constant pressure or a constant pressure mode and the lung is cannulated on an artificial trachea, just as the heart is cannulated on an artificial aorta. This perfusion, can be in either retrograde, as in the Langendorff, or anterograde to normal blood flow. The respiratory performance of the lung can be measured in terms of respiratory volumes exchanged at a given rate,while cardiac mechanical performance is measured by its developed pressure or stroke volume multiplied by its rate in beats per minute. Unlike the heart, the isolated lung does not have an intrinsic pacemaker, so its mechanical activity must be generated through one of two ways. In the positive pressure method, air is forced into the artificial trachea and then into the lung via arespirator. In the negative pressure method, the lungs are placed in a sealed chamber that mimics the situation in the subject’s chest cavity. In vivo, it is the action of the diaphragm muscle that creates a reduction of internal pressure, while in vitro a vacuum is generated by a respirator in the sealed chamber that permits air to follow its pressure gradient into the lung. To remove the air, the respirator then pushes air into the chamber, deflating the lungs.